Men’s Employment Crisis: Only 41% Experienced Steady Careers

1 min read
November 16, 2023
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In a groundbreaking study by Penn State and Ohio University (The Myth of Men’s Stable, Continuous Labor Force Attachment: Multitrajectories of U.S. Baby Boomer Men’s Employment by Adrianne Frech, Jane Lankes, Sarah Damaske, and Adrienne Ohler), researchers have unveiled the complex nature of American men’s workforce participation. Contrary to the long-held view of steady employment, only 41% of baby boomer men followed a consistent work trajectory. This finding challenges traditional notions of the male breadwinner role and its impact on men’s health, social status, and economic stability.


The study published in Socius critically reassesses the ‘lockstep progression’ of men’s employment, traditionally seen as stable and uninterrupted until retirement.

Breaking Down the Study

Study’s Methodological Approach

  • Data and Analysis: Utilizing group-based multitrajectory models, the research examined employment patterns, unemployment, and time out of the workforce for men aged 27 to 49, based on the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort.

In-Depth Findings

  • Varied Trajectories: The study identifies diverse employment patterns, including intermittent work and early or mid-career exits, reflecting the complex interplay of structural changes, health, and social factors.
  • Low Steady Employment: Only 41% of men experienced steady employment, much lower than societal expectations.
  • Increasing Steady Work: 25% of men showed a pattern of early career instability, followed by more stable employment later in life, though with potential long-term financial implications.
  • Racial Disparities: The study highlights significant racial disparities, especially among Black men, in experiencing intermittent work patterns.

Broader Implications and Context

  • Changing Labor Market: The decline in middle-skill jobs and the rise of precarious work have significantly impacted men’s workforce participation.
  • Health and Social Consequences: Inconsistent employment has profound implications on men’s mental health, financial stability, and social status.

Expert Insights and Theoretical Framework

  • Sarah Damaske and Adrianne Frech’s Perspectives: The researchers emphasize the gap between the idealized, stable worker norm and the reality of men’s diverse work experiences.
  • Life-Course Perspective: The study underscores the importance of a life-course perspective in understanding men’s employment patterns.

Policy Implications and Recommendations

  • Addressing Workforce Attachment: Public policy should focus on modifiable factors influencing men’s lower workforce attachment.
  • Support for Nonsteady Workers: Recognizing the prevalence of nonsteady work, policies should aim to mitigate its social and health consequences.
  • Reassessing Employment Norms: The study calls for a reevaluation of the breadwinner ideology, highlighting the need to understand and support American men’s diverse and often precarious employment experiences.

Limitations and Future Research

  • Model Limitations: The study acknowledges the limits of its group-based trajectory models and the need for future research to explore the heterogeneity of workforce experiences further.

Our Thoughts

This study sheds a lot of insight into many social norms, especially the decline of marriage rates after the 1979s, despite reported economic rebounds. We have seen other studies, like the one from Finland, showcasing increasing economic insecurity in a fantastic way to reducing marriage and family formation rates. 

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